Introduction to C++

Introduction to C++

What is C and why learn it?

C was developed in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories. C was originally designed for writing system software but today a variety of software programs are written in C.

C can be used on many different types of computers but is mostly used with the UNIX operating system.

It is a good idea to learn C because it has been around for a long time which means there is a lot of information available on it.

Quite a few other programming languages such as C++ and Java are also based on C which means you will be able to learn them more easily in the future.

Your first program:

The first thing you must do i download the Turbo C++ and now type the following lines of code and then I will explain it. Make sure that you type it exactly as I have or else you will have problems.

Also don't be scared if you think it is too complicated because it is all very easy once you understand it.

#include<stdio.h>

int main()
{
   printf("Hello World\n");
   return 0;
}


#include<stdio.h>

This includes a file called stdio.h which lets us use certain commands. stdio is short for Standard Input/Output which means it has commands for input like reading from the keyboard and output like printing things on the screen.

int main()

int is what is called the return value which will be explained in a while. main is the name of the point where the program starts and the brackets are there for a reason that you will learn in the future but they have to be there.

{}

The 2 curly brackets are used to group all the commands together so it is known that the commands belong to main. These curly brackets are used very often in C to group things together.

printf("Hello World\n");

This is the printf command and it prints text on the screen. The data that is to be printed is put inside brackets.

You will also notice that the words are inside inverted commas because they are what is called a string.

Each letter is called a character and a series of characters that is grouped together is called a string. Strings must always be put between inverted commas.

The \n is called an escape sequence and represents a newline character and is used because when you press ENTER it doesn't insert a new line character but instead takes you onto the next line in the text editor.

You have to put a semi-colon after every command to show that it is the end of the command.

Table of commonly used escape sequences:

\a- Audible signal

\b- Backspace
\t - Tab
\n - Newline
\v- Vertical tab
\f - New page / Clear screen
\r -Carriage return


return 0;

The int in int main() is short for integer which is another word for number. We need to use the return command to return the value 0 to the operating system to tell it that there were no errors while the program was running.

Notice that it is a command so it also has to have a semi-colon after it.

Save the text file as hello.c and now rum the program.

Indentation:

You will see that the printf and return commands have been indented or moved away from the left side. This is used to make the code more readable.

It seems like a stupid thing to do because it just wastes time but when you start writing longer, more complex programs, you will understand why indentation is needed.

Using comments:

Comments are a way of explaining what a program does. They are put after // or between /* */.

Comments are ignored by the compiler and are used by you and other people to understand your code.

You should always put a comment at the top of a program that tells you what the program does because one day if you come back and look at a program you might not be able to understand what it does but the comment will tell you.

You can also use comments in between your code to explain a piece of code that is very complex.

Here is an example of how to comment the Hello World program:

/* Author: Your name

   Date: yyyy/mm/dd
   Description:
   Writes the words "Hello World" on the screen */
#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
   printf("Hello World\n"); //prints "Hello World"
   return 0;
}




INTRODUCTION TO C++:

Hello World Program:

Our first C++ program will print the message "Hello World" on the screen. Open a new project or console and start by typing the following line:

#include<iostream>

The above line includes the header file called iostream which will allow us to use the command to print words on the screen. Next you must type:

using namespace std;

This will let us use certain commands without having to type out their full name. Now we will type the main function.

int main()

{
}


The main function is where a program always starts. Every program must have a main function. The word int in front of main is to say what the return value is.

The curly brackets belong to the main function and show where it begins and where it ends. Now we will type the command that prints "Hello World" on the screen between the curly brackets.

cout << "Hello World\n";

The cout command is used to print things on the screen. The << means that the text must be output. The words that you want printed must be surrounded by quotes.

The \n means that the cursor must go the beginning of the next line. Lastly we must return 0 to the operating system to tell it that there were no errors while running the program.

return 0;

The full program should look like this:

#include<iostream>

using namespace std;
int main()
{
   cout << "Hello World\n";
   return 0;
}


Save the file as hello.cpp. You now need to compile the program. You need to open a command prompt and type the command name of your C++ compiler and the name of the C++ file you have just created.

Here is an example of how to do it with Turbo C++:

hello.cpp

If you are given error messages then you have made mistakes which means you should go through this post again and fix them.

If you don't get any errors then you should end up with an executable file which in my case is called hello.exe

Enter hello to run the program and you should see "Hello World" printed on the screen.

Congratulations! You have just made your first C++ program.

-Mohammed Ahmed F, Chief Administrative Officer.

Beware of Our Fake Blog

Folks,

Beware of fake blog in the name of ours.

Some anonymous 'Jonny Jonny' as created a blog http://bca-tnc1.blogspot.in/ and has posts completely stolen from our blog http://bca-tnc.blogspot.in/

Those who are reading the fake blog of ours (http://bca-tnc1.blogspot.in/) created by an anonymous, read at your own risk. Any improper updates given therein will not be compared with this blog.

Although every person in the Department of Computer Applications knows about the existing of this blog as an initiate by its students, this blog has been declared to be unofficial blog of 'Department of Computer Applications' of 'The New College' as the administrators of this blog wish to share their knowledge with others and have been initiating the same and have being providing you the best service possible which cannot be clubbed under the official banner.

We were just shocked to see a fake blog of ours!
That some anonymous created!!
Are we that famous!!!



-Mohammed Ahmed F, Chief Administrative Officer of Unofficial Blog (http://bca-tnc.blogspot.in/) of Department of Computer Applications, The New College.
.
100+ Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows

100+ Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows

Keyboard Shortcuts for Windows:

1. CTRL+C (Copy)
2. CTRL+X (Cut)
3. CTRL+V (Paste)
4. CTRL+Z (Undo)
5. DELETE (Delete)
6. SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)
7. CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)
8. CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)
9. F2 key (Rename the selected item)
10. CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word)
11. CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)
12. CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)
13. CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph)
14. CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)
SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document)
15. CTRL+A (Select all)
16. F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)
17. ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)
18. ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)
19. ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object)
20. ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)
21. CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents open simultaneously)
22. ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items)
23. ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)
24. F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)
25. F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
26. SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)
27. ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)
28. CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)
29. ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu) Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command)
30. F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)
31. RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)
32. LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)
33. F5 key (Update the active window)
34. BACKSPACE (View the folder onelevel up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
35. ESC (Cancel the current task)
36. SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROMinto the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing)


Dialog Box - Keyboard Shortcuts
1. CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)
2. CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs)
3. TAB (Move forward through the options)
4. SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)
5. ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)
6. ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button)
7. SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)
8. Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)
9. F1 key (Display Help)
10. F4 key (Display the items in the active list)
11. BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)


Microsoft Natural Keyboard Shortcuts
1. Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu)
2. Windows Logo+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)
3. Windows Logo+D (Display the desktop)
4. Windows Logo+M (Minimize all of the windows)
5. Windows Logo+SHIFT+M (Restorethe minimized windows)
6. Windows Logo+E (Open My Computer)
7. Windows Logo+F (Search for a file or a folder)
8. CTRL+Windows Logo+F (Search for computers)
9. Windows Logo+F1 (Display Windows Help)
10. Windows Logo+ L (Lock the keyboard)
11. Windows Logo+R (Open the Run dialog box)
12. Windows Logo+U (Open Utility Manager)
13. Accessibility Keyboard Shortcuts
14. Right SHIFT for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off)
15. Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off)
16. Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off)
17. SHIFT five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off)
18. NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off)
19. Windows Logo +U (Open Utility Manager)
20. Windows Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts
21. END (Display the bottom of the active window)
22. HOME (Display the top of the active window)
23. NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (*) (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder)
24. NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) (Display the contents of the selected folder)


MMC COnsole Windows Shortcut keys


1. SHIFT+F10 (Display the Action shortcut menu for the selected item)
2. F1 key (Open the Help topic, if any, for the selected item)
3. F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
4. CTRL+F10 (Maximize the active console window)
5. CTRL+F5 (Restore the active console window)
6. ALT+ENTER (Display the Properties dialog box, if any, for theselected item)
7. F2 key (Rename the selected item)
8. CTRL+F4 (Close the active console window. When a console has only one console window, this shortcut closes the console)


Remote Desktop Connection Navigation
1. CTRL+ALT+END (Open the Microsoft Windows NT Security dialog box)
2. ALT+PAGE UP (Switch between programs from left to right)
3. ALT+PAGE DOWN (Switch between programs from right to left)
4. ALT+INSERT (Cycle through the programs in most recently used order)
5. ALT+HOME (Display the Start menu)
6. CTRL+ALT+BREAK (Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen)
7. ALT+DELETE (Display the Windows menu)
8. CTRL+ALT+Minus sign (-) (Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
9. CTRL+ALT+Plus sign (+) (Place a snapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing ALT+PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)


Microsoft Internet Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts
1. CTRL+B (Open the Organize Favorites dialog box)
2. CTRL+E (Open the Search bar)
3. CTRL+F (Start the Find utility)
4. CTRL+H (Open the History bar)
5. CTRL+I (Open the Favorites bar)
6. CTRL+L (Open the Open dialog box)
7. CTRL+N (Start another instance of the browser with the same Web address)
8. CTRL+O (Open the Open dialog box,the same as CTRL+L)
9. CTRL+P (Open the Print dialog box)
10. CTRL+R (Update the current Web)
Notes update

Notes update

Folks,

If you are able to download the notes which are mapped herrin this blog,vthen kindly drop in your Email ID in 'Contact Us' page by filling in the contact us application form with the appropriate title of notes which you can copy from 'PDF / Notes' page.

We will send them to you in mail.

Our E-Mail is interact2innovate@yahoo.com

Inconvenience caused regreted.

-Administrator.
SAP Course Advice

SAP Course Advice

Folks,

SAP is an addon to your career. If you really want to do SAP in India then do it in Bangalore or else do not dream of the same.

Although it is for about 20 or 25 days intensive course costing you more than Rs. 2.75L, it will be like Goundamani and Senthil comedy in other places of India.

Hence choose your training centre with care.

If you go as a SAP Trainer to Canada, you will be offered the highest pay, a mansion for you and your family and a luxury car! The another is that you need not change your domain to do SAP!!

Many foolish people say that if you are really willing to do SAP, then you should have at least two years of hands on experience in a big enterprise then only you will be able to understand the needs of the same when you will be learning it.

-Chief Administrative Officer.